Therefore, centers of decay
1974. West: a stand culture symposium. 174 p. Seidel, K. W. 1979. menziesii), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), western
western larch (Larix occidentalis), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga
In the eastern Cascades of Washington, 915 to 1220 m (3,000 to 4,000
cover types: Western Larch (Type 212), Western White Pine (Type 215),
Technical Report INT-114. Plant communities of the Blue Mountains in eastern
9 p. Society of American Foresters. lower side of branches below the female flowers. Factors influencing
ventralis) are the principal bark beetles attacking grand fir. Eight-year observations of permanent sample plots in Idaho show that
3-1. Research Paper PNW-259. Low. Annual
attained in the coast Douglas-fir region. It grows from moist river valleys to dry rainshadow forests.
F) for 14 to 42 days before nursery sowing in the spring. was reported responsible for losses of 14 percent of the gross
Olympic Peninsula in western Washington, and 250 or more days in northern
Herbaceous species commonly found in various associations with grand fir
1987. yield. 148 p. Stage, A. R. 1969. Grand fir leaves
Mountains of northern California through southwestern Oregon and through
spp. The differences
Time of flowering may
Grand fir crosses with both the concolor and lowiana varieties
Shrubs commonly associated with grand fir include pachistima (Pachistima
fir, western hemlock, and Engelmann spruce.
growing, shade-intolerant species.
Richard C. Presby.
417 p. Furniss, R. L., and V. M. Carolin.
), thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus), rustyleaf
Most of the genetic variation available for
Growth: The tallest known Grand Firs are just over 260 feet (80m). annual snowfall ranges from a few centimeters on some coastal sites to
Abies grandis series that includes nine habitat types and five
to survive drought conditions in duff and surface soil. It is also an important component of the mixed
In the Inland Empire, a good cone crop for grand fir is considered to be
while western white pine produced two good crops and three fair crops. River drainage of north-central Idaho. stands at age 100 years range from 476 to 1330 m /ha (6,800 to
Seeds in the
western hemlock, western larch, and Douglas-fir. on areas exposed to full sun because deep initial root penetration
1980. It also is associated
conifer communities in the Willamette Valley and Siskiyou Mountains of
Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. shastensis), and Oregon
shade-killed branchlets in the lower crown.
fir, noble fir (Abies procera), subalpine fir, and western white
(Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), in addition to western redcedar,
neighboring plantations of other commonly planted species, and the rate of
damage. The wood is lightweight and not very strong. Okanogan and Kootenay Lakes in southern British Columbia south through
Pole-size and larger grand firs respond well to release by thinning and
654 p. Graham, R. T. 1988. myrsinites), bristly black currant (Ribes lacustre), Saskatoon
1969. with these coast hardwoods: bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum), Oregon
Many of the biggest are on the Olympic Peninsula. resistant to cold during the severest part of the winter. as Sonoma County. shade-tolerant understory and eventually assumes dominance as climax
Oregon, it is the climax type following Douglas-fir and Oregon white oak.
Commission Bulletin 49. On heavily shaded, cool
have been subjected to temperatures of -55 C (-67 F) without
Birds, chipmunks and squirrels eat the seeds. arnica (Arnica cordifolia), strawberry Fragaria spp. to 50 F); the average growing season temperature is 14 to 19
stellata), goldthread (Coptis occidentalis), Pacific trillium
Scottish Forestry 33(2):89-101.
the wind and rodents. ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and in certain areas,
within its range. a grand fir-Shasta red fir stand in central Oregon. the lowest germination percentage among major associates of the western
occidentalis) and Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata)
mechanical injuries (21). Paper PNW-275. Natural variation within and between the silver
Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), and Port-Orford-cedar
stands where either even-aged or uneven-aged silviculture is practiced.
western Washington and Oregon, and in northwestern California as far south
regions it grows best on rich mineral soils of the valley bottoms, but it
reported. Redcedar (Type 228), and Western Redcedar-Western Hemlock (Type 227). Numerous insects attack grand fir. in).
DC. p. 175-184. in valleys and stream bottoms having high ground-water levels. America: it is the predominant species in only one, Grand Fir (Society of
Most of this precipitation occurs during winter. to 1270 mm (20 to 50 in).
Distribution: It is native from southern British Columbia along the coast to northern California. Haig, Irvine T. 1932. and Phellinus weiri are the two most important root rot fungi.
883 p. yew (Taxus brevifolia), white fir (Abies concolor), incense-cedar
vulgaris), pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubescens), western fescue
Germination is best on mineral soil, but on
(23,500 acre) on the Coeur d'Alene National Forest. resistant to heat injury; it is equal to western white pine and
between trees from sources east and west of the Cascade crest have been
Oregon it grows most abundantly on deep, rich alluvial soils along streams
producing cones and seeds, are short, spherical to cylindrical, and stand
because initial root penetration is slow; even shallow drying of the
merchantable cubic-foot volume and 33 percent of the board-foot volume in
USDA Forest Service, R6-ECOL-23OA-1986. Grand fir seedlings are relatively resistant to drought
grand fir (17). Other sources place the
and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR.
fir regeneration to overstory removal in northern Idaho. in the rain forest of the Olympic Peninsula of Washington. 1973. 1981.
Significant differences in height growth
because of embryo dormancy, insect infestation, and the perishable nature
caudatum), Piper anemone (Anemone piperi), violet (Viola
northwestern United States and southern British Columbia. 1974. (Trillium ovatum), sweetscented bedstraw (Galium triflorum),
fall, about 5 percent falling before September 1 and 80 percent falling
fir seeds are typically stratified at 1 to 5 C (34 to 41
western redcedar. entire crop may be classed as a failure (9). scars appear more frequently on grand fir, however, than on its associates
USDA Forest Service, R6 Area Guide
limits of the range, grand fir is found with redwood (Sequoia
**Use of articles and photos on this site is permitted for educational purposes only. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland,
Washington, DC. 135 p. Hemstrom, M. A., S. E. Logan, and W. Pavlat. pine, Douglas-fir, and lodgepole pine, but it grows faster and deeper than
The potential of western
The soft white wood of grand fir is a valued source of pulpwood. selection cuttings if the crowns are vigorous (13). ), and several seed chalcids destroy large numbers of
Grand fir has been crossed with several European and Asiatic species
are due principally to biotic agents, especially damping-off fungi. In the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington, decay
phases in which grand fir is the climax tree. more than 1270 cm (500 in) in the mountains of the interior (9).
Mountains of eastern Oregon. to heat from insolation and drought. On optimum sites in the coastal lowlands of
ridges. larch, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir but more resistant than subalpine
western white pine type; it is less resistant than thick-barked western
Early growth of grand fir seedlings in
for the western white pine type. We have 4 in our region but only the Grand Fir, Abies grandis, is common in lower elevations.
not grow as rapidly nor as deeply as dry site associates such as ponderosa
development among its associated tree species. redcedar (Thuja plicata), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta),
seedlings 3 years old are fairly well established (9,24). deeper levels (9). It is a major component of six other
lasiocarpa), black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), Pacific
Aho, Paul E. 1977.
western redcedar and western hemlock. firs from Vancouver Island and western Washington are reportedly
Experimental Forest yielded 31,600 grand fir seeds per hectare (12,800
elevations above 460 m (1,510 ft), grand fir is replaced by Pacific
growing season, May through August.
Seed Production and Dissemination- Seed production begins at
protects them from drying of the surface soil.
female flowers are borne in clusters on branchlets of the previous
white pine. elevations of most coastal locations, and in June at the higher elevations
Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. season's growth in different parts of the same tree. Grand Fir grows quickly when growing in the open, more slowly in the shade. One tree in
In the coastal forests of Washington, grand fir
Indian paint fungus is rare in grand fir west of the Cascade crest where
USDA Forest Service, General
Computing procedures for grand fir site evaluation
other seral species in the dominant overstory.
Topik, C., N. M. Halverson, and D. G. Brockway. Habitat: It is shade tolerant but less so than Western Hemlock and Western Red Cedar. The cones mature in one season. of white fir. geographical distribution is from latitude 51 to 39 N. and
Flowering and Fruiting- Grand fir trees are monoecious; male and
Reaction to Competition- Grand fir is classed as shade-tolerant
tributaries. In northern Idaho, where grand fir grows with
East of the
Tsuga heterophylla, and Abies lasciocarpa series of habitat